Specialty Glossary

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Anesthesiologists are medical doctors who specialize in anesthesiology, which is the use of pain-blocking techniques or medications (anesthetics) during surgery and other medical procedures.

Breast Surgery

Breast surgeons perform procedures such as aspiration of cysts and fine needle aspiration of solid lesions as well as core needle biopsies. Operations include: axillary lymph node biopsy; open breast biopsy, lumpectomy; simple, subcutaneous, and modified radical mastectomy; axillary node dissection; and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

Cardiology & Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiologists specialize in diseases of the heart, lungs and blood vessels and complex cardiac conditions such as heart attacks and life-threatening abnormal heart beat rhythms.

Critical Care

The critical care unit is designed to provide a concentration of skills, equipment and facilities for specialized medical and nursing care for the critically ill patient. It is for the patient who requires continuous, comprehensive and detailed intensive care because of the critical nature of the patient's disease or illness. A multi-disciplinary approach is utilized by consultations with dietary, pharmacy, physical therapy, respiratory therapy and social services when appropriate to meet the patients needs. Rehabilitative and preventative services are also provided by the initiation of patient education and discharge planning. 


Dermatology is the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of patients with the disorders of skin, mouth, hair and nails.

Emergency Medicine

Emergency medicine includes the evaluation and treatment of unexpected injury and illness.


Endocrinology is the treatment of the glands, hormones and related disorders, including diabetes and disorders of the pancreas, pituitary gland, ovaries, testes, thyroid and adrenal glands.


Otolaryngology is the division of medical science that focuses on the ears, nose and throat (ENT). Otolaryngologists diagnose and treat disorders from the shoulders up, with the exception of the eyes and brain. Conditions they may deal with include hearing loss, tonsillitis and nasal obstructions.

Family Practice

Family practice medicine includes the diagnosis and treatment of general medical conditions for people of all ages.


Gastroenterology (GI) is the treatment of disorders of the digestive system and diseases of the stomach, intestine, liver, gallbladder and pancreas.

General Surgery

General surgery is the study and practice of all types of surgical operations. General surgeons perform a number of procedures aimed at treating a range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, appendicitis, tonsillitis and hernia.

Gynecologic Oncology

A gynecologic oncologist is an obstetrician/gynecologist who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of women with cancer of the reproductive organs.


Gynecology is a medical specialty focusing on the health of women before, during and after the childbearing years. Gynecologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the female reproductive organs.


Medical oncologists are specialists in using various medications to treat and manage patients with cancer. This includes the use of chemotherapy to kill cancer cells, painkillers to manage cancer pain, and drugs that will eliminate or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.

Hospice & Palliative Medicine

Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. It aims at improving quality of life, by reducing or eliminating pain and other physical symptoms, enabling the patient to ease or resolve psychological and spiritual problems, and supporting the partner and family.


A hospitalist specializes in the management of hospitalized patients. A hospitalist takes over for a primary care physician when it comes time to admit a patient.

Immunology / Allergy & Asthma

Immunology is the study and treatment of the body's reaction to foreign substances. The ailments treated by immunologists include hay fever, asthma, hives and other abnormal responses to allergens that range from dust and food to animals and chemicals.

Infectious Disease

Infectious disease includes the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial, viral, parasitic and other communicable diseases.

Internal Medicine

Internal medicine includes specialties of medicine such as prevention, diagnosis and care of adults with general illness, disease and injury.

Maternal & Fetal Medicine

Maternal and fetal medicine focuses on the care of high-risk pregnancies, including fetal abnormalities, preterm delivery, maternal diabetes and other medical conditions that may jeopardize the mother or baby, as well as prenatal diagnosis and ultrasound to detect problems of pregnancy.


Neonatology is the medical specialty of taking care of newborn, sick and premature babies.


Nephrology includes the specialties of medicine that deal with the structure, health and function of the kidneys.


Neurology involves the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord and nervous system, including seizures, strokes and head injuries.


Neurosurgeons specialize in surgically treating diseases and disorders of the nervous system. The nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord (central nervous system), along with the nerves of the brain and spinal cord (peripheral nervous system).

Non-Clinical Services

Non-clinical services include education, facility operations, food/nutrition, health information management (HIM), housekeeping and environmental services, human resources, information systems, materials management, and patient services.

Obstetrics & Gynecology

Obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) is for women before, during and after pregnancy and at menopause. It includes the medical and surgical treatment of the female reproductive and urinary systems.

Oncology- Radiation

Radiation oncology is the field of medicine that uses therapeutic applications of radiation to manage cancer and other diseases. Radiation oncologists determine the type of radiation that will be used, as well as the amount or dose, and the number and length of treatments.


Ophthalmology is the medical specialty devoted to care of the eye and the treatment of diseases that affect eyes and vision. An ophthalmologist diagnoses and treats abnormalities of the eye and performs surgery on the eye.

Orthopedics/Orthopedic Surgery

Orthopedics is the medical field concerned with the prevention and correction of muscular or skeletal injuries and abnormalities. Orthopedic surgeons treat complex conditions and injuries as well as broken bones, severe muscle sprains, and knee and other joint injuries. They also perform joint replacements.

Pain Management

In pain management, physicians and other pain experts choose from an extensive series of diagnostic tests to precisely identify the source of a patient's pain. Treatment and management possibilities are wide-ranging and include physical therapy, behavioral therapy, biofeedback and pain-relieving devices that are implanted under the skin.


Pathology is the study of the nature and causes of disease. A pathologist examines body tissues to diagnose diseases and to determine the cause of various conditions, including death. There are several subspecialties in pathology, including chemical pathology, forensic pathology, hematology pathology and neuropathology.


Pediatrics is the field of medicine dedicated to the care of infants, children and teenagers. Doctors in this field are called pediatricians. They are often the first doctors children see, and they concentrate on preventing illness and treating children for a variety of conditions, including sore throats, earaches and infectious diseases.

Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

A physiatrist is a physician who specializes in physical medicine, which is the curing of injuries and disease by natural methods. Measures that are used include physical therapy, massage, exercise, light and heat. Physicians and therapists who specialize in physical rehabilitation help patients who have had a stroke or serious injury return to home, work or school. The goal of therapy is to restore lost function through hands-on treatment, exercise and patient education.

Plastic/Reconstructive Surgery

Plastic/reconstructive surgery involves the repair, restoration or reconstruction of different parts of the body. Plastic and reconstructive surgeons not only perform elective cosmetic surgery to improve appearance but they also repair and reconstruct the facial features and bodies of patients with conditions caused by burns, injuries, diseases and congenital deformities.


Podiatry is the study, prevention and treatment of problems of the foot. A podiatrist may prescribe corrective devices and medication or recommend physical therapy. Podiatrists attend colleges of podiatric medicine, and graduates are doctors of podiatric medicine (DPM). Podiatrists with advanced training also do various types of foot surgery.

Pulmonary Medicine

Pulmonology is the field of medicine devoted to the study and treatment of diseases of the respiratory system. Pulmonary specialists, called pulmonologists, treat pneumonia, bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, cancer and other disorders of the lungs and respiratory system.


Radiologists use x-rays, mammography, CT scan, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, MRI and image-guided interventional procedures to visualize the body and its organs to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of patients.


Rheumatology is the study and care of the joints and the muscular and skeletal systems. Rheumatologists treat a range of conditions, from athletic injuries to arthritis, lupus and rheumatic fever.

Thoracic Surgery

Thoracic surgery is the study and practice of surgery on the chest cavity and rib cage, including the heart, lungs and esophagus. Thoracic surgeons treat patients with lung cancer, coronary diseases, aneurysms and heart diseases.


Urology is the study and treatment of the male and female urinary tracts and the male genital tract. Urologists diagnose and treat disorders of the urinary tract, prostate and bladder.

Vascular Surgery

Vascular surgery is the focus on surgical solutions to diseases of the body's blood vessels, including the heart and lymph systems. Vascular surgeons treat patients for lymphatic diseases, strokes, aneurysms, varicose veins and other conditions.

Wound Care & Hyperbarics

Non-healing wounds can be a source of pain and disability. Wound management was created to assist patients with difficult wound-healing problems. Besides evaluating, cleaning and dressing wounds, the center offers hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT).